Nature-based Solutions in Bangladesh: Evidence of Effectiveness for Addressing Climate Change and Other Sustainable Development Goals
Many lower-income countries are highly vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters and climate change, due to their geographical location and high levels of poverty. In response, they are developing climate action plans that also support their sustainable development goals, but conventional adaptation approaches such as hard flood defenses can be expensive and unsustainable. Nature-based solutions (NbS) could provide cost-effective options to address these challenges but policymakers lack evidence on their effectiveness. To address this knowledge gap, we focused on Bangladesh, which is exceptionally vulnerable to cyclones, relative sea-level rise, saline intrusion, floods, landslides, heat waves and droughts, exacerbated by environmental degradation. NbS have been implemented in Bangladesh, but there is no synthesis of the outcomes in a form accessible to policymakers. We therefore conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of NbS for addressing climate and natural hazards, and the outcomes for other sustainable development goals.